Inflation began many hundreds of years ago it's said in England. The poor King was fighting the French and did not have enough money. So he ordered coinage to be halved in size that way his treasury could buy twice as many men. Worked well for a short period until goods started to double and the soldiers grumbled their wages-efectivley cut in half, were now buying only half the goods. Enter the lenders (whose faith won't be discussed here). They bolstered the Kings dwindling treasury with loans but their interest rates were so high the King knew he would never pay them off, so they were all prisoned/banished or forced to accept what the King wanted to give them. A little like Argentina when they defaulted (for the fifth time).
Technically high interest rates equal a strong currency making over seas goods cheaper to buy = lower inflation. But then it depends whether that is a risk currency or a safe currency. Which means what may be good for the goose isn't always good for the gander. Enter core vs. non core inflation. If a country is dependant on oil imports and oil keeps rising then countries in this catagory are more likely to rely on core inflation gauges that ignore short term volatile products like food and energy. But if you think about it food and oil haven't been that volatile for quite a while, they just keep rising. Ignoring non-core CPI is dangerous as it just temporary hides the underlying forces that could suddenly push rates higher. Do higher rates effectivley squash rising inflation, yes & no, they do turn off the economy making less of a demand for goods so prices ease,( but as mentioned by a previous poster) debt interest payments rise meaning the government has to print more money (sell more bills/bonds at higher rates) which can be inflationary. It's a very fine line to tread. Easier in the old days when governments had little debt but right now the whole world could go into default and Central bankers are very aware of this. I would imagine if China had not become such a power house and been buying all this debt the world would have defaulted about ten years ago. Evenutally the Piper will have to be paid because the goose isn't Golden anymore! & China won't always supply cheap labour, keeping the price of goods artificially low, something has to break which is why Gold is so manipulated by those who can do it.
A long post but defining inflation in one sentence isn't so simple.