producers. Shipping heavy crude is expensive, by whatever means, because it weighs more.Canada is giving away a lot by not building upgraders to lighten up it's crude slate. Upgraders will volumetricly expand output and remove sulfur at origin point(low value), cheapen transportation cost by pipe, rail and ship. Refiners are benefiting because they are getting the volumetric gain and buying absurdly cheap crude. Of course, upgrading capacity costs money, right now producer cash flow is hurting due to the low prices they get so capital is in short supply. PBN output is light crude so it doesn't suffer from the heavy oil discount.