> Only one of the minerals to be mined at Nico; and "Fortune" claims to have 15 % of Global Reserves; ...and probably a much higher percentage of what would be considered, stable, conflict-free countries!

> Take a look at current uses; ...here are some that I came across:



Bismuth oxychloride is extensively used in cosmetics and bismuth subnitrate and subcarbonate are used in medicine. Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) is used for nausea, heartburn, indigestion, upset stomachs, and diarrhea.

Some other current uses are:

Strong permanent magnets can be made from the alloy bismanol (MnBi).

Many bismuth alloys have low melting points and are widely used for fire detection and suppression system safety devices.

Bismuth is used in producing malleable irons.

Bismuth is finding use as a catalyst for making acrylic fibers.

Also used as a thermocouple material (bismuth has the highest negativity known).

A carrier for U-235 or U-233 fuel in nuclear reactors.

Bismuth has also been used in solders. The fact that bismuth and many of its alloys expand slightly when they solidify make them ideal for this purpose.

Bismuth subnitrate is a component of glazes that produces an iridescent luster finish.

Bismuth is sometimes used in the production of shot and shotgun slugs. Its advantage over lead in this respect is that is non-toxic so is therefore legal in the UK for the shooting of wetland birds.

In the early 1990s, research began to evaluate bismuth as a nontoxic replacement for lead in various applications:

As noted above, bismuth has been used in solders; its low toxicity will be especially important for solders to be used in food processing equipment.

As an ingredient of ceramic glazes

As an ingredient in free-machining brasses for plumbing applications

As an ingredient in free-cutting steels for precision machining properties

In low-melting alloys used in fire detection and extinguishing systems

As an ingredient in lubricating greases

As a dense material for fishing sinkers.




Fuses, sprinklers, glass, ceramics and as a catalyst in rubber production.

Chemistry Unit Cumulative Task: Bismuth            Anthony