Gold, manipulation and domination

By Henry C K Liu

All over the world, trade in gold had been the favored device for evading national foreign exchange controls from the end of World War II to 1971. In 1946, the Bretton Woods regime adopted in 1944 became operational, thereby forbidding the importation of gold for private speculative purposes in signatory nations. Britain was a signatory but Portugal was not.

Thus a gold-smuggling operation between the Portugal colony of Macau and the British territory of Hong Kong flourished until 1974, two years after the United States took the dollar off gold, in effect abolishing the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchange rates, when Hong Kong abolished a law that requires a special license to import gold for re-export. Tiny Macau became one of the world's biggest importers and re-exporters of gold during this period.

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